Topic 3 Risk factors social and individual

Infodemic is too much information including false or misleading information in digital and physical environments during a disease outbreak.


  • Confusion
  • Risk Taking Behaviours

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Divergence of political attitudes away from the centre, towards ideological extremes. Most discussions of polarization in political science consider polarization in the context of political parties and democratic systems of government.

Privileged communities with easy access to knowledgeable agents are more likely to be protected against misinformation, but if homophily is too high and communities become more insular, then vulnerable communities with few or no knowledgeable agents will have little access to the more affluent communities and their resources.

Outbreaks of measles in Eastern Europe and parts of the US have been linked to Russian interference and propaganda whose goal is to convince people that vaccines are harmful in order to make them opt against vaccinations during Covid – 19.

As demonstrated here, beliefs of privileges and marginalized  communities have different behaviors. As homophily increases (i.e. as ps increases), the beliefs of the privileged community move towards the truth while the marginalized community’s beliefs fall below the belief threshold given by the dashed line, leading to the agents in that community taking the incorrect action.

This Theory implies that the media has the power to inject highly influential messages directly into passive and susceptible audiences. 

Such audiences have no other sources of information by which to compare the media’s messages, they have no choice but to act on those messages.

Agenda-Setting Theory refers to how the media’s news coverage determines which issues become the focus of public attention.

Introduced in 1972 by Maxwell McCombs and Donald Shaw.

There is a correlation between issues citizens of Chapel Hill, N.C., thought were important and stories presented by the local and national media.

Research has shown that infodemic knowledge can cause psychological disorders and panic, fear, depression, and fatigue (Rocha et al, 2021).

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